In the process of artificial seasoning, water is removed from the wood by artificial means. Another method of piling once used to promote rapid drying was edge piling. The example of highly refractory woods are heavy structural timbers, i.e. (II) Air Method. This is usually expressed as a percentage. Timber is an important construction material. To increase dimensional stability. Following are the advantages of kiln seasoning of timber: 1. Seasoning When a tree is initially cut it is extremely wet, with 85 per cent water content. The rise in temperature should be such that the timber retains originals strength and elastic properties. Of the methods available for seasoning wood, air drying is the oldest and simplest. It should be noted that all the types of timber either naturally durable or non-durable, need proper seasoning to give satisfactory service. When the timber is freshly felled or cut, it should be place at a place where air may circulate through it. The examples of moderately refractory woods are teak wood and rosewood. Sawn timber is stacked in a dry place about 30cm above floor level with longitudinal and cross pieces arranged one upon another, leaving space for the free circulation of air. Wall Tiles and Floor Tiles: What is the Difference? Natural seasoning • (1) Natural seasoning: In this method, the seasoning of timber is carried out by natural air and hence it is also sometimes referred to as air seasoning. Decrease the weight of timber and as a result the cost of transportation and handling is reduced. If wood is cut to size before it is seasoned, it ... To reduce or eliminate attack by decay or stain. 1.4. Natural seasoning or Air seasoning. Ends of boards sealed by using a suitable sealer or cover to prevent too rapid drying out via the end grain. For a large quantity of timber, the boiling process is very difficult so, for which hot steam is passed through the logs of timber in an enclosed room. What is a Ground Source Heat Pump? The roof and two other sides keep the timber relatively dry. Air seasoning or natural seasoning. Class B – Moderately Refractory Woods. The wood can be used immediately as and when required. Diagram of essential features of good lumber stacking for proper seasoning. a) Kiln seasoning:- In this process timber is seasoned under controlled temperature and humidity condition with proper air circulation and ventilation system. The properties of timber like dimensional stability, strength, and stiffness – all depend on moisture content of the wood. Due to the process of drying is quick; continuous attention needs to be given to check seasoning defects such as warping, internal cracks, surface cracks and end- splits. The timber seasoned by this method is less liable to shrinkage. Natural Drying/Air Drying Air-drying is the drying of timber by exposing it to the air. Lumber is piled in a special way to maximize the surface exposure of each piece of lumber to the air and at the same time to support each piece so it will dry straight and without unnecessary warping. Types of these defects in wood are discussed in detail. By natural process, the timber is seasoned. Faulty method of seasoning causes serious defects in woods. Well -seasoning timber is ready to use. The actual time of drying depends upon the size of timber, species of wood and seasonal variations of climate. It requires the following: The details depend on the size, quantity and species of the timber. It requires about 60 to 90 days for soft wood. The roof and two other sides keep the timber relatively dry. Time required for natural seasoning of timber is around 120 to 180 days. These are: 1. Seasoning of timber should be regarded as an integral part of timber utilization. 3. They are natural or air seasoning and artificial or kiln seasoning. Janvi Desai is a Civil Engineer (BE). Artificial drying or kiln drying. In air seasoning, the boards are stacked and divided by narrow pieces of wood called stickers so that the air can circulate freely about each board. The timber can be seasoned thoroughly well and in a short span of time under controlled conditions. 2) Kiln Seasoning Advantages: Insects are killed during this process, Require little stacking space, Moisture content of the timber may be brought to any desired level The principal of this seasoning is to provide free circulation of air to allow the moisture to evaporate. AIR SEASONING The easiest way, but not the most effective method of seasoning timber, is to stack it outside. process of removing this . If the stickers are not properly aligned, forces will be created in the drying lumber that will result in permanent kinking of the lumber. The process has undergone a number of refinements over the years that have made it more efficient and reduced the quantity of wood that was damaged by drying too quickly near the ends in air seasoning. Such end racking promotes good air circulation and consequent rapid drying which eliminates the staining problem but often causes end surface checking and warping of the material. Allow the wood to burn quickly if it is used as fuel. Reduce the tendency of the timber to crack, warp, shrink and bend. To eliminate rapid end drying, the ends are frequently coated with a material such as paraffin or tar to retard evaporation, but often this is not enough protection, and it is necessary to place the material in what are known as semi-kilns in which the drying rate is still more retarded. Finally, cover the pile with old boards, plywood, corrugated metal or any materials that will protect the top layers of lumber from sun and rain. The circulation of the air slowly dries the timer. It may be further classified into the following: a. It takes more than six months for timber to season in moderate climates. Natural seasoning as the name suggest is the natural way of removing moisture from timber. The time taken for air-drying is a function of the thickness of the timber. The traditional method of seasoning timber was to stack it in air and let the heat of the atmosphere and the natural air movement around the stacked timber remove the moisture. Natural seasoning as the name suggest is the natural way of removing moisture from timber. It . Air can then circulate around and through the stack, to slowly remove moisture. But unfortunately timber usually possess different types of defects. comes from the . The woods obtained from coniferous trees like deodar, fir, pine, spruce, chir etc. Let us know in the comments what you think about the concepts in this article! • The process of drying of timber is known as seasoning of Timber. Natural Seasoning. In the chemical seasoning, green sawn timber is first soaked in a solution of an anti-shrink or anti-shrink cum hygroscopic chemical for an appropriate period. As . A well-seasoned piece of wood should have 10% to 12% of moisture equal to atmospheric humidity of a … The care should be taken to see that all members in a particular layer are of the same thickness. Seasoning by Boiling. Semi-kilns are often nothing more than covered sheds in which the material is piled, but they may often be large enclosed buildings in which low heat and controlled humidity are used to slow the drying process. (i) Natural Seasoning: It may be air seasoning or water seasoning. This system of piling is called "box piling" and has proven to be the best method of piling random length lumber. With the increased use of several secondary species that possesses higher shrinkage than teak, deodar, rosewood etc. Splits, shakes, warps and twists can be removed or cut out before the timber is used during machine cutting. A. Seasoning can be achieved in a number of ways, but the aim is to remove water at a uniform rate through the piece to prevent damage to the wood during drying (seasoning degrade). Seasoning of timber. In this method timber immersed in water flow to remove the sap from timber. If this precaution is not taken, there are chances for timber to become warped or cracked. 2) Kiln Seasoning Advantages: Insects are killed during this process, Require little stacking space, Moisture content of the timber may be brought to any desired level Air-drying of timber is really a more controlled facilitation of what happens to unseasoned sawn, timber, once it is placed into its “work” environment. After seasoning has been done timber is not liable to be decayed. Let us discuss the objectives, advantages, types, and methods of seasoning of timber. Note that the stickers are carefully aligned vertically (Figure 2) so that each layer of lumber will be supported from the base of the pile. Highly refractory timbers are slow in drying. These defects in timber can be due to natural forces, fungi, insects, and during seasoning and conversion. Air-drying timber stack Wood drying (also seasoning lumber or wood seasoning) reduces the moisture content of wood before its use. The seasoning of timber using natural elements like water, the air is known as NATURAL SEASONING The natural seasoning could even be water seasoning or air seasoning. How to Choose the Right Type of Wood for Log Cabin? Single Flight Staircase vs. Most air seasoned material is dried in flat piles with stickers placed between layers, but when it is essential to have rapid drying to prevent sap stain, end piling may be used. Your lumber probably will be cut in random lengths and widths. Besides being blogger, she also participates in quantity survey, site management, design & detailing. These defects in timber can be due to natural forces, fungi, insects, and during seasoning and conversion. Care should be taken not to expose the freshly converted timber stacked for seasoning to severe winds or to sun. Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter. To make it suitable … Although it is generally thought that air drying is a gentle method of seasoning timber, it is often severe depending on the time of the year and the species involved. The moisture content can be reduced as per requirement. The salt... Kiln Seasoning. it has become imperative that adequate attention should be paid to the process of seasoning of wood before use. Seasoning is done for the following reasons: When wood utilised as fuel, to make it burn quickly seasoning is done. "Seasoning" is the name given to the methods of drying timber. In natural or air seasoning of timber, the timbers of convenient sizes are stacked under a covered shed in a cross-wise direction in alternate layers to permit free circulation of air. The 25 mm thick timber may take three to four months to dry in a moderate climate. Generally, air seasoning is a slow process. When the timber is freshly felled or cut, it should be place at a place where air may circulate through it. The drying arrangements are available inside the chamber. Care is taken to see that there is proper air circulation around each timber balk. Seasoning of timber or simply Timber seasoning is the process of drying timber or removing moisture or sap, present in a freshly felled timber, under more or less controlled conditions Reasons for Timber Seasoning Freshly felled timber contains moisture 100 to 200% of its dry weight. If sufficient moisture is not removed from the wood before it is used, the timber cannot be used as a building material. Due to this heat is generated during the process, which results in its drying. Interior portion of wood may remain moist while exterior part dries quickly. Before […] The stack is slanted to facilitate drainage of rain. In natural seasoning, timber is dried by natural elements like air and water. wood contains excess moisture which must he removed before it is suitable for most articles of manufacture. In dry-kiln seasoning, the wood… Natural or Air seasoning: T his method of seasoning the wood is simple and cheap, but it very slow. To give strength, hardness and to make electrically resistant. Ltd. The process has undergone a number of refinements over the years that have made it more efficient and reduced the quantity of wood that was damaged by drying too quickly near the ends in air seasoning. The basic principle is to stack the timber so that plenty of air can circulate around each piece. Improve strength, hardness and stiffness of timber. It is normally placed in a hut / building, with two sides open to allow air to circulate. When the desired temperature is obtained inside the chamber, the moisture content in timber gets reduced. Care should be taken not to expose the freshly converted timber stacked for seasoning to severe winds or to sun. Solve this simple math problem and enter the result. Natural Resources FlJRN1lUR.E MANUFACTURING Seasoning of Wood By C A Eckeiman . It can be either moderate or rapid. When the drying is done in a kiln, the product is known as kiln-dried timber or lumber, whereas air drying is the more traditional method.. She graduated from Government Engineering College – Bharuch in 2017. To minimise the cost of handling, transport by decreasing the weight of wood. for 1+3, enter 4. The quality of the timber is also determined based on the moisture content of it. It will take 2 to 4 weeks of time and after that, the timber is allowed to dry. Unsupported ends of boards placed on the inside of the pile will dry with fewer defects than if allowed to extend over the end of the pile. 1.8. Describe the formation of lamin board.Answer: Lamin board is made up of layers of 5 – 7mm strips of natural timber glued together and veneered.6. There are various types of defects in timber as a construction material. Describe the formation of block board.Answer: Block board is made up of layers of natural timber up to 25mm in thickness, glued together and veneered.7. The timber is stacked with wide spaces between each piece horizontally, and with strips of wood between each layer ensuring that there is a vertical separation too. Timber, lumber, or wood is one of the oldest and remarkably versatile natural resource that is ideal for various applications. There are various types of defects in timber as a construction material. It requires skilled labour. The amount of drying that can occur is very much governed by the relative humidity of the drying environment and will often vary within individual boards as well as within the stack itself. Timber becomes more suitable for painting after artificial seasoning. Humidity controls the … So the chances of fungi and insect attacks are less. Over head cover from effects of direct sunlight and driving weather. Seasoning This is the drying of timber. Grasscrete: Sustainable Paving Systems | Types, Advantages & Installation. Artificial Seasoning of Timber Seasoning by Boiling. Water seasoning is the process in which timber is immersed in water flow which helps to remove the sap present in the timber. Natural Seasoning has two methods (I) Water Method (II) Air Method. They are then arranged in layers, one above the other. This is simply the weight of water contained in a piece of timber compared with the weight of actual woody substance in the same piece. Warping is a kind of variation from a true or plain surface and may include a one or combination of cup, bow, crook and twist. Know the Difference Between Cement and Concrete. There are two methods by which timber can be dried: Natural drying or air drying. So, stress is developed due to the difference in shrinkage. If seasoning is not done the right way, shrinkage of wood will be irregular, and it will set up internal stresses between the fibers. In this method, a pile of ripped wood is placed and placed in a dry place. In this method timber immersed in water flow to remove the sap from timber. This method is cheep but it takes time. In Missouri, wood can be air dried to a minimum of about 15 percent moisture content, provided the drying time is sufficiently long. Serious defects in woods horizontally or vertically and the seasoning of timber is entirely kept underwater …. ( II ) air method natural seasoning of timber ) when it dries used for applications! 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